Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that sets emission reduction goals, with developed countries having more responsibility for reducing emissions because of their role in producing the high levels of Greenhouse Gasses in the atmosphere.  The Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 and is legally binding for its signatories.


Goal: The goal of the Kyoto Protocol is the fulfillment of the following objectives;

Article 12

            5. a) Voluntary participation approved by each Party involved;

            b) Real, measurable, and long-term benefits related to the mitigation of climate   

                change; and

c) Reductions in emissions that are additional to any that would occur in the absence

     of the certified project activity.


Relevant Clauses [1]


Article 2

1. Each Party included in Annex I, I achieving its quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3, in order to promote sustainable development, shall:

a) Implement and/or further elaborate policies and measures in accordance with its national circumstances such as:

i) Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy,

iii) Promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture in light of climate change considerations;

v) Progressive reduction or phasing out of market imperfections, fiscal incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies in all greenhouse gas emitting sectors that run counter to the objective of the Convention and application of market instruments;

vi) Encouragement of appropriate reforms in relevant sectors aimed at promoting policies and measures which limit or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol;

vii) Measures to limit and/or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in the transport sector;

3. The Parties included in Annex I shall strive to implement policies and measures under this Article in such a way as to minimize adverse effects, including the adverse effects of climate change, effects on international trade, and social, environmental and economic impacts on other Parties, especially developing country Parties […]


Article 3

1.    The Parties included in Annex I shall, individual or jointly, ensure that their aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the greenhouse gases listed I Annex A do not exceed their assigned amounts […]

Article 10

All Parties […] shall:

b) Formulate, implement, publish and regularly update national and, where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change and measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change:


[1]United Nations (1998). Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved October 14, 2013, from United Nations Framework on Climate Change: