The controversial steel complex Companhia Siderurgica do Atlantico (TKCSA) is a joint project between Vale and ThyssenKrupp at the Sepetiba Bay in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A study by Friends of the Earth showed that the project has negatively affected the livelihoods of 8,000 fishermen living in traditional communities in the Sepetiba bay. According to the study, the onset of industrial activity led to air pollution levels exceeding environmental limits and metal-like particulate matter being spread over the Santa Cruz neighbourhood and surrounding areas.
Vale plans to expand its rail line to transport iron ore from the Carajás mine in Northern Brazil. This poses a threat to the ecosystem and the traditional lifestyles of the Awá tribe which, according to Survival International, is the world’s most endangered tribe.